Hilma Krohne with sons J.D. & C.B. c1927 Krohne Island
Clockwise from top left C.O. Krohne c1904 Krohne Island
Right Prize winning apple display State Fair c1910 Lower
apple picking, sorting & packing Krohne Island c1910 this
was a big operation and 1,500 trees produced a lot of
apples, after packing they were rail shipped throughout
Montana and the nation.
C.O. Krohne with son B.T. inspect his orchard for winter
kill in this rare c1908 photo, Krohne Island at riverbank.
A frail C.O. Krohne examines his orchard for winter kill
trees c1908, he is standing on two wooden legs, notice he
walks with 2 canes, in just 9 years he would be gone of a
stroke as a direct result of loosing his legs in the 1880's.
Only in his early 50's at death in 1917, one can only
imagine had he lived another 20 years.
C.O. Krohne seated in his 1908 Mitchell "Mother-in-Law Seat
Roadster", in front of the Krohne Block 116 E. Callender St,
Livingston c1909 note the fact his is the only auto on the
then unpaved street, also note the window in the center of
the building reads "Charles O. Krohne Real Estate" the
Krohne Estate still has the Brass E & J oil side & tail
lights from this car. This Mitchell would have cost
$1,725.00 in 1908, TWICE THE PRICE OF THE AVERAGE HOME IN
LIVINGSTON AT THE TIME ! The Krohne family owned and
operated the very first automobile in Livingston, C.O.
Krohne's 1903 "Haase" Model "B" Phaeton.
Krohne Island House c1925 Hilma Krohne 1886-1971 & C.B.
Krohne 1920-1988, the house still stands today, looking
exactly the same, occupied by a 5th generation Krohne Family
This impressive brick courthouse, shown
shortly after construction, opened August 1, 1896, amid much
fanfare. Initially part of Gallatin County, one of nine
original Montana territorial counties. Park County had been
created nine years earlier in February 1887, with Livingston
as county seat. Despite some opposition, this venerable
landmark was razed in 1974 to make way tor the new
city-county government complex.
Here is Coxey's Army on the way to
Washington D.C. to demand jobs in 1894. Livingston played an
important part in the great American Railway Strike, because
it was an important division point of the Northern Pacific.
The first train was held up here on June 27. For 13 days, no
train passed through town. It was July 11 when the strike
was called off.
The first town at the great bend of the
Yellowstone was Clark City, where merchandise for railroad
builders first arrived. Unknown to residents there, railroad
officials had purchased land farther north and decreed that
the tracks should be placed there, where they could reap a
handsome profit. Clark Street was named for the abandoned
Clark City. Post office was established in Clark City on
October 17, 1882, and in Livingston on November 13, 1882.
James "Yankee Jim" George came to the area in 1873. He
squatted above the canyon and took over the wagon road,
which had been constructed the previous year by Bart
Henderson and Adam "Horn" Miller. He built a way station and
charged toll over the road. Henderson and Miller had built
the road to take mining supplies by wagon into the Cooke
Yankee Jim's toll gate was between the house
and barn. Toll charges were $2.50 for one wagon and one team
of horses or mules; $1.50 for each additional team; $1 for a
single horse and rider; 75 cents for a pack horse; and 5
cents for each head of horses, cattle, or sheep.
The Wan-I-Gan grew in size and services
during the 28 years when the Whithorns owned it from 1948 to
1976. Twelve cabins were available for tourists, fishermen,
hunters, and (for 17 years) Dr. Townsend's patients. Those
cabins were marked by births, deaths, and recuperations. The
Horn House was added in 1954. The Wan-I-Gan ceased being a
business in December of 1983.
President Roosevelt rode down from Mammoth with Major
Pitcher. James C. McCartney, the so-called "Mayor of
Gardiner," joined them. The child is thought to be Paul
Hoppe, son of Walter Hoppe, owner of the log livery stable
in the background. Upstairs from the stable was a public
In 1886, Floyd Thompson made the trek west to Livingston and
joined the Thompson Brothers partnership. The enterprise
boomed, and the brothers built a new complex on the corner
of Main and Callender Streets. This 1890s view depicts Floyd
tending the counter in the dry goods department. Catherine
Lane Interiors resides at the same location today.
Well known throughout Montana, the Gateway
City Band was on-call to entertain at the myriad of local
social functions and festivities. Incorporated in 1903, the
band purchased new uniforms in 1907. Lead by Joe Brooks,
they played at functions held throughout Montana and played
regularly at the Montana State Fair.
Located on Lewis and D Streets, it was the
first church constructed in Livingston. Although 1883
newspapers advertised nearly 30 saloons casting about to
capture the spirits of men, the religious side of life was
not neglected. On July 25, 1883, foundations for the
Methodist Episcopal church were laid by Rev. George Comfort.
Centered between Brainard, Minnesota, and
its terminus in Portland Oregon, Livingston became the hub
of the NPRR in 1883. To navigate the Bozeman pass, the NPRR
designed a switchback and used helper engines stored in
Livingston to help with this steep ascent over the pass.
Arriving in Livingston around 1904, Herbert Cummings
(Commings) and son Lyman took over Wakefield's old livery
business in 1906. The Cummings business moved into a new
brick building on Lewis and 3rd Streets in 1909. Businessmen
Mertz and Blair took over the old livery location on
Callender and 2nd Streets, establishing an automobile
business. The advent of the horseless carriage steered the
Cummings family into launching an automobile repair business
and Chevrolet dealership.
Livingston appeared a bustling metropolis in this view
looking east on Callender Street around 1935. Many
businesses had come and gone since the turn of the century,
but a few standards remained, including the Park Hotel,
rebuilt in 1904 after a disastrous fire, and James Vicar’s
Drug Store, a fixture since 1906. In the next decade, the
classic bell tower of City Hall would be removed, forever
changing the skyline.
It seems no early Western town was complete without a local
cigar factory that catered to the gentlemanly pleasure
enjoyed by kings and commoners alike. Livingston was no
exception, and for almost 50 years, the Garnier Cigar
Company provided the smoke enjoyed by railroad workers,
tourists, businessmen, and probably Calamity Jane. Charles
Gamier and son Charles Jr. for a time supported a payroll
surpassed only by the Northern Pacific.
Established in July 1886, the Gamier Cigar Company produced
handmade cigars from leaves grown in Cuba, Honduras, and
Connecticut. Garnier's original factory was devastated by
fire in 1897 but was soon replaced by this brick edifice on
North 2nd Street. One of several manufacturers in town,
Gamier competed with Charles Manley and James Shipton's
cigar brands, J. S. and Livingston Favorite. Gamier also
served as mayor and city treasurer. Crafted in different
shapes and sizes, the Montana Sport was Garnier's only
cigar. However, upward of 40,000 cigars per month were
produced to supply local and regional demand. Featuring i
droopy-eared Mack and white Springer spaniel, Garnier's
trademark logo graced cigar boxes, bands, and advertising
materials for many years. Charles Sr. died in 1939 and
Charles Jr. followed in 1944, bringing an end to this
Carved by a Chicago firm in 1883, this gaily painted
cigar-store Indian was shipped by rail to Charles Manley's
cigar factory in Livingston. "Chief Skookum" guarded
Manley's factory on North Main Street until fire destroyed
the operation July 4, 1887. Manley and his wooden friend
moved to Tacoma, Washington, where they managed a cigar
store for 50 years. Charles confers with "The Chief" in this
This rustic log depot was built at the end of the Northern
Pacific Railroad's spur line - from Livingston to Gardiner
in 1903. Robert Reamer, the architect to the Old Faithful
Inn, designed this attractive building. The Roosevelt arch
was constructed the same year and faced the depot and became
the official North entrance to Yellowstone. Six-horse
Concord stage coaches carried tourists from the depot to the
Mammoth Hotel. After 1916, the yellow tour busses of the Y P
Transportation Company replaced the stagecoaches. Regular
scheduled train passenger service to Gardiner ended in 1948,
and a lamentable decision was made 6 years later to demolish
this historic site.
Long before the white man arrived, the
Shoshone, Bannock, Blackfoot and Crow Indians called this
area "The Valley of the Flowers". This was a sacred, natural
territory used for hunting. In 1864 gold was discovered
bringing an influx of miners and settlers making Livingston
a town in 1882 with the coming of the Northern Pacific
railroad. This 1918 photo shows the 1902 Northern Pacific
Depot on the right behind the locomotive smoke.
from the book "Imprints on
by Ida McPherren, Hugo Hoppe's great niece.
Sherman Canfield was born on a ranch in Nebraska, near what
is now West Point in 1865, was a frequent visitor to
Cinnabar. His father, George Canfield and his mother (nee:
Rhodes) were pioneers of Nebraska, and it was while
operating a small boarding house close to the stockyards in
Omaha that George Canfield met Buffalo Bill.
When Buffalo Bill formed the Wild West Show in 1887 and took
it to England, he took George Canfield's son, Sherman, with
him as his private secretary. Sherman followed the
show until 1892 when his father was manager of the newly
constructed Sheridan Inn, and Sherman quit the show to
assist his father in its management.
It was while he was with Buffalo Bill that Sherman got to
know the crowned heads of Europe by their first names and
often entertained them in the royal box at the show.......
Cinnabar, Sherman telephoned to Cooke City, Gardiner,
Horr, Aldridge, Red Lodge, and sent a cowboy riding to
outfits to give notice that there would be a tryout for
riders for Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show the coming Sunday.
The next morning, I came home and that night every man in
Cinnabar and the cowboys, who had arrived for the tryouts,
got gloriously, hilariously, drunk.............
That night Cinnabar celebrated in a mild form of the
previous night’s carousal but the lights were out and
everyone between suggans before midnight for the next day
was the day of the tryouts for the coveted position of rider
in Buffalo Bill’s Wild West Show.
The bucking contest was held on the arena in front of
Cinnabar’s grandstand at noon as the last stage had rolled
Parkward. A few tourists laid over for the show and were
part of a crowd of approximately five hundred spectators who
witnessed what was one of the greatest exhibitions of bronco
busting I have ever witnessed through all the years that
followed. Sherman was the sole judge.
It was a clean exhibition of horses that had never been
ridden trying to get the objectionable weight on their backs
off and the weight sticking. Along in mid-afternoon a
funny incident occurred. A young man, about
twenty-three years of age, came riding up the road leading a
wild horse. The man was wearing cowboy boots and spurs, but
no chaps, sombrero or the customary vest. He asked to
ride in the tryouts.
Stares, sneers and sniggers were openly directed in his
direction but Sherman said to let him ride. A cowboy held
the wild horse while the stranger uncinched his flimsy old
saddle; transferred it to the bronc and climbed aboard.
With that the fun was on. With his head to the ground
and back arched like an angry cat's the wild cayuse bucked
and pitched sunfished; jumped straight up and came down a
twisting and then shook himself in an effort to get rid of
the man on his back........
Unable to unseat his rider, the horse broke into a run down
the road........... Sherman stood waving his hat and
cheering one of the finest rides he had ever seen.
The cowboy who had practiced every spare moment for a year
for the event but who did not have enough money to purchase
a cowboy outfit got the job............
Park County, so named due to its proximity to Yellowstone
National Park, was created by the territorial legislature
February 23, 1887.
Prior to the coming of the white man the only residents were
Crow Indians who roamed the entire Yellowstone River basin.
The first white people to enter the local area were the
famous Lewis and Clark along with their party including
Sacajawea. Jim Bridger (the famous scout and mountain man)
wintered with the Crow Indians near Emigrant in 1844-45.
In the three decades after Lewis and Clark, this area as
well as much of the mountain west was actively trapped by
hundreds of men, primarily for beaver. In the decades
starting 1840 and 1850, the trapping activity largely ceased
because of lack of beaver demand due to the changed styles
and the country being trapped out.
Gold was discovered in Emigrant Gulch in 1863. By the fall
of 1864, several hundred men were working claims there. When
winter came, 75 log huts were built at the mouth of the
gulch and the town named Yellowstone City.
In 1864, John Bozeman opened up the new road bearing his
name to shorten, by several hundred miles, the route between
Fort Laramie and the gold localities of Western Montana. The
road passed through the Livingston area and then out over
In the mid-1860s, there was much travel going east. The
almost complete lack of roads in the territory led to the
use of the rivers, including the Yellowstone, as routes. The
Livingston area was an embarkation point for hundreds of
people prepared to risk the hazards of the river and Indians
in mackinaws (these were flat boats 30-50 feet long and 4-5
feet high at the sides, some with crude cabins on them).
Much of the lumber came fro the first saw mill in the area
on Mill Creek. In 1865 one fleet of 42 mackinaws left the
boat yard on September 27. A year later a fleet of 16
mackinaws left the Livingston area with 250 miners carrying
$500,000 in gold. They made the 2700 mile trip to St. Joseph
in 28 days.
In 1864 Hunter’s Hot Springs was discovered by Dr. Hunter
and his party, passing through. Dr. Hunter returned six
years later, built a house and took residence, in spite of
Indian dangers. Later, the area was famous as a resort for
In 1866, 600 Longhorn cattle that had made the “long drive”
from Texas were trailed into the Shields Valley by Nelson
Story for eventual sale to the miners further west. Before
this could be accomplished, over half of the cattle were
lost to marauding Sioux.
In April 1867, John Bozeman was killed by Blackfoot Indians
near Mission Creek. This incident, added to others, caused
the then territorial governor to organize a militia to
punish the Indians and protect the settlers. Six hundred men
encamped at Fort Howie at the mouth of the Shields River.
In 1868, in accordance with the Crow Treaty of that year, an
Indian agency was established on the Crow reservation on
Mission Creek. It was considered the finest fort in the
territory, fully stockaded, blockhouses on the corners, etc.
The requirements of the Fort for supplies caused a ferry to
be set up across the Yellowstone River four miles east of
the present site of Livingston. A small settlement, known as
Benson’s landing, grew up here. For many years, it was the
focal point of the area with some log houses, a hotel,
several saloons, etc. It served as a stage stop, trading
post and post office.
For a very long time, the area of Yellowstone Park was
almost completely unknown. The stories told over the years
by Jim Bridger, traders and the Indians were received
incredulously. The place was known as “Colter’s Hell” from
Colter’s stories of his winter there in 1807-1808. In 1869,
the first real exploring party entered the Park area,
followed by the Washburn party of 1870 and Hayden party of
1871. This lead to the creation by Congress of the country’s
first national park in 1872.
By 1880, the population for the county was only about 200.
In 1881, the Northern Pacific Railroad, building a line
westward, entered the state of Montana. Livingston was
reached November 22, 1882 where a settlement of 500 people
had sprung up, awaiting the railroad.
1883, the National Park branch of the NP Railroad was
completed and the east west sections of the railroad joined
together near Garrison, this opened up the entire country.
Following these events, the local area had a period of rapid
growth. By 1890, the county had a population of 6,900.
Steady growth since then has brought the county to where it
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